# Vortex Media.zip

We report on the first experimental observation of stable vortex solitons in nematic liquid crystals with nonlocal nonlinear reorientational response. We show how these nonlinear vortex beams can be formed and confined in extraordinary optical waves by employing the cell with no lateral boundary conditions and the application of an external magnetic field that effectively controls the molecular direction and propagation of the self-trapped beams. We also find that these vortex solitons can be generated in certain ranges of the input beam power.

## vortex media.zip

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Shows the training and validation convergence graphs for the CNN used in the study. The convergence of the NPCC function for the image reconstruction process for both the vortex beams (A,B) and Gaussian beams (C,D) is shown. The reduction in the mean squared error (MSE) with each epoch is also shown.

(A) Experimental setup used to verify the enhancement caused by illuminating the diffuser with different modes of vortex beams. (B) Propagation of the vortex beams through the beam splitter. (C) Imparting the topological charge to the Gaussian beams along with the tilt using a forked hologram to cause a shift in the propagation axis.

(A) and (B) Show the imaging setup of the imaging with multiple vortex modes and their corresponding Gaussian modes, respectively. (C) Shows the SLM displaying the digits dataset numbers63 and the image acquisition setup.

The experimental patterns from the vortex beams and the Gaussian beams and the reconstructed images using the CNN are shown. The changes in the contrast of the images as compared to the simulated images is due to the difference in the colorbar and exposure settings of the beam profiler.

We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental observation of higher-charge vortex solitons and vector vortex solitons in lead glass with strongly thermal nonlocal nonlinearity. A higher-charge vortex soliton with a topological charge of l=4 and a vector vortex soliton consisting of two orthogonally polarized vortex components, with charges l1=1 and l2=4, were observed at several times of diffraction length. We show that the ring profiles and the carried topological charges of the two incoherently coupled vortex components can be preserved. We also numerically find that the stability of the higher-charge vortex can be enhanced by co-propagating a stable, single-charge vortex.

The motion of fluid in casing of pump is an example of vortex motion. When considering the motion of fluid in porous media, the fluid does not moves in straight line, the fluid moves in curved direction around the porous media (spherical). Incompressible fluid between two parallel porous walls is considered [1]. Using the similarity variable, the partial differential equations were reduced to ordinary differential equations. The coupled ordinary differential equations were solved numerically using shooting method. The effect of various physical parameters, such as the Prandtl number, Grashoff number, permeability parameter and ratio of the free stream velocity to parallel wall parameter on the boundary layer velocity and skin-friction coefficient were investigated.

This is also obvious that the fluid temperature decreased as either of the number, ratio of free stream velocity parameter to parallel wall motion of a fluid in bend or entrance to the pump is decreased. The motion of fluid in voids of porous media can be considered as to free vortex motion of fluid as the fluid moves due to its own natural effect and energy is not added to fluid. The geometry of porous media is complex and the width of pore is small as compared to the size of the porous media. As the fluid is saturated and single fluid flow, the motion of the fluid around the porous media can be considered as the free vortex flow at low Reynolds number.

In vortex motion the stream lines are curved and when fluid flows between curved stream lines the centrifugal forces are set up and the centrifugal forces are balanced by the pressure forces acting in radial direction [2]. 041b061a72